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Publication of the PATENT STUDIES

A biannual scientific journal "PATENT STUDIES", edited by the Planning Committee for industrial property studies of Japan Patent Office,is published by Japanese Institute of Invention and Innovation.
This is to promote public understanding on the importance of the industrial property system and to stimulate basic studies on this subject.

The journal is mainly in Japanese.

New

No.38 2004.9

Back Numbers

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Publication of the PATENT STUDIES No.38

A scientific journal PATENT STUDIES No.38,edited by Industrial Property Training Institutethe Research Office of Japan Patent Office has been publised from Japanese Institute of Invention and Innovation.
This is to promote public understanding on the importance of the industrial property system and to stimulate basic studies on this subject.
The journal is biannualy published in only Japanese.

The contents&Abstracts are as followings.

Thirteen yeas of Picking up Empty Cans in the Park

Tetsuro HOSHINO

International Judicial Jurisdiction and Applicable Law in International Intellectual Property Law Litigations
-focusing on developments of the territorial principle in recent cases-

Shoichi KIDANA

The globalization of market, the spread of internet and the development of the digital technology have led to increase various kinds of international litigations on intellectual property. In Japan, courts have decided the cases a priori based on the territorial principle. However, as we saw in the first Small Chamber decision of the Japanese Supreme Court on the "Card-Reader Case", Sep. 26, 2002(Minshu vol.56 no.7 p.1551ff.), we come to reconsider the significance and nature of the territorial principle in many cases. In this article, I examine the international jurisdiction and choice of laws on intellectual property in each area from point of the territorial principle. In choice of laws, we argue the parallel import on goods which are granted intellectual property, active inducement outside of the country of registry, assignment of intellectual property and the reasonable rewards of employee's invention which were decided on recent cases. Rather than adhere to the strict presumption of the territorial principle, it is necessary to reexamine the significance and the basis of this principle in each dimension.

Business method patent and the examination of the non-technical elements of the patent application
-A comparative study with the practice in Europe-

Katsuya TAMAI

It is well established in Europe that inventions should have a "technical character" that has a direct physical effect on the "real" world, not accomplished through mental activities. For inventions using non-technical features, including business method patents, it has been widely accepted as the common practice at patent offices to examine the inventive step of the technical features of the relevant invention, skipping the review process of patent eligibility as to technical character.

Protection of Geographical Indications and Collective Mark, Certification Mark System as its Means

Ryo MARUYAMA

Surveying domestic laws and international treaties for the protection of geographical indications, we look that way of their protection might lead to international trade disputes. After international comparative study of collective mark and certification mark system as its means, we conclude that the introduction of these systems will best fit to present Japan for the protection of geographical indications.

The case where a district court, examining a patenton infringement claim, found that an amendment to a claim made following examined publication constituted an "amendment which substantially modifies the scope of a claim".

Yasuhumi SHIROYAMA

 The Tokyo District Court, examining a patent infringement claim, found that an amendment to a patent claim made following examined publication constituted an "amendment which substantially modifies the scope of a claim" due to the fact that some newly added elements, (which were disclosed as an embodiment in the specification), were not well-known at the time of the patent application. As a result, the Tokyo District Court dismissed the plaintiff's claim based on the conclusion that the patent is invalid.

IPR Enforcement Issues in the Multilateral Framework

Shozo UEMURA

The discussion and negotiation history over the past quarter of a century, as well as current trends, of intellectual property right enforcement issues in the multilateral framework is overviewed with more focus on WIPO activities in this area. Enforcement issues have been discussed and negotiated in a variety of multilateral fora, including WIPO and WTO, and their nature and implications have changed and are still changing. Such negotiation dynamism is advised to be kept in view in formulating any future international strategy in this field.

The Advisory Commission on Patent Law Reform, A Report to the Secretary of Commerce, August 1992 [6]

Industrial Property Training Institute Research Office, JPO

Shoji HAMADA

Publication of the PATENT STUDIES No.37

A scientific journal PATENT STUDIES No.37,edited by Industrial Property Training Institutethe Research Office of Japan Patent Office has been publised from Japanese Institute of Invention and Innovation.
This is to promote public understanding on the importance of the industrial property system and to stimulate basic studies on this subject.
The journal is biannualy published in only Japanese.

The contents&Abstracts are as followings.

"Man's Fight against Infectious Diseases, Then and Now"

Isao ARITA

"On the geographical indications as one of intellectual properties Geographical indications found in recent court decisions in our country"

Shin-ithi KUKUMINATO

Such geographical indications as prescribed in TRIPS agreement have for a long time been protected by Lisbon text in wine exporting countries of West Europe. At EC level England and Germany came to participating into this matter with the result of EC geographical indication regulations in an expanded area as of agricultural products and foodstuff. This result in EC is transferred to regulations in TRIPS agreement in an upgraded form which prescribe world-wide protection of further more revised form.

This theme has been searched into recent court decisions in our country so that it have been found in clearly recognizable form and therefore may be permitted as of important matter.

Interpretation of Trademarks "Well Known among Consumers"

Kazuo MORIOKA.

The terms of trademarks which are, or have become "well known among consumers" are provided in the articles 4 sub-section(1)-10,32 sub-section(1)and 64 of the Trademark Law, and the article 2 sub-section(1)-1 of the Unfair Competition Law. This paper examines how to interpret the meanings of "well known among consumers" purported by those provisions.

Some questions in employee's invention

Hiroshi YOSHIDA

This article disposes the invention of employee.
After demonstrating my interpretation of shop rihgt regime,I am going to discuss the transfer of the job invention.
Futhermore,by examing the recent cases,I will investigate some questions which have not been examined on foresaid issue.

Case holding that exercise of trademark right was misuse of the right because it had been registered obviously contrary to Section 4(1)(vii) of Trademark Law.

Masaharu MIYAWAKI

This article criticises the Court's finding that the trademark had been registered "obviously" contrary to Section 4(1)(vii) of Trademark Law. Also criticises the Court's application of the misuse of right doctrine, which had been adopted by the Supreme Court in a patent case, to the trademark case where the trademark right was obtained with bad intent.

The International Patent System and the South issues
-From perspectives of the WIPO Patent Agenda and the reports by the CIPR and the South Center

Takashi YAMASHITA

Views of developing countries to the future international patent system are shown through the introduction of the WIPO Patent Agenda and the reports by the UK Commission of Intellectual Property Rights (CIPR) and the South Center. While developing countries are cautious to the discussion on the international patent system put forward by developed countries, they are taking it positively as a forum to address the South issues. The two reports are likely to influence such a stance of developing countries.

Publication of the PATENT STUDIES No.36

A scientific journal PATENT STUDIES No.36, edited by Industrial Property Training Institutethe Research Office of Japan Patent Office has been publised from Japanese Institute of Invention and Innovation.
This is to promote public understanding on the importance of the industrial property system and to stimulate basic studies on this subject.
The journal is biannualy published in only Japanese.

The contents & Abstracts are as followings.

Classic Music fan for 80 years

.Minoru NAGAOKA

The interpretation of the proviso of Patent Act ァ102-1

Yoshiyuki TAMURA

Regarding the interpretation of "Reasons to overrule the presumption" as listed in the proviso clause of Section 102 Subsection I of the Patent Law, the 46th civil court of the Tokyo District Court has consistently ruled that, even if in the market there are either substitute or other competitive products coexisting with the infringing products of the accused party and the patented products, the above-mentioned proviso clause does not apply.
Therefore, the presumed damages defined in the above-mentioned Subsection shall not be overruled in part. This article provides a critical discussion about the series of court judgments which are contrary to the common understanding.

Information As a Product?-Screening Method Patent And the limits of Process Claim

Ryuta HIRASHIMA

Information Technology makes R&D methodology for life science and biotechnology change from "material"-based one into "information"-based one, so to say "be informationized". On the other hand, does patent law evolve keeping pace with that transition?
This article focuses on the scope of screening method patent, and explores the limits of process claim, including the review of recent U.S. case held by CAFC (Housey v. Bayer Case), then studies how the information as the output of screening method, or other research tools using "bioinformatics" should be protected as a matter of the Japanese Patent Law.

Significance and usefulness of the UTILITY MODEL System

Tadashi HOZUMI

Since revision of the UTILITY MODEL LAW in 1993, in general, the UTILITY MODEL System is thought to have dropped in significance and usefulness. However, it is possible to say that with this revision,this System has acquired for the first time a separate identity from the PATENT System. The decrease in the number of utility model applications may be the evidence of its own identity. This article aims to make the significance of the UTILITY MODEL System clear. Further, this article aims to propose some ideas for increasing the usefulness of this system. It is actualized by abolishing the different classifications of subjects of protection and of the registrability and the patentability between the UTILITY MODEL and the PATENT System.

The relation between the doctrine of equivalents and the rule of prosecution history estoppel

Toshisuke KIYONAGA

Superme Court of United States held in Fest Corporation, Petitioner v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co.,LTD.,ETAL. that the patentee should bear the burden of showing that the amendment does not surrender the particular equivalent question. The judgment of the Federal Circuit is vacated , and the case is remanded for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.

Treatment of Trade Secrets under Law Concerning Access to Information Held by Administrative Organs in Japan

Hiroshi MIYAKE.

Under Law Concerning Access to Information Held by Administrative Organs in Japan, trade secrets and know-how are tested for the interpretation of Article 5, (2), (a) "Where there is a risk that, by being made public, the rights, competitive standing, or other legitimate interests of the corporation, etc. will be harmed." In particular, public interest necessity of disclosure is also considered for the test of "legitimate interests".

The Advisory Commission on Patent Law Reform, A Report to the Secretary of Commerce, August 1992 [5]

Industrial Property Training Institute Research Office, JPO

Shoji HAMADA, Yoshimi OKADA

Publication of the PATENT STUDIES No.35

Technics and New Society

Bill Totten

Slavish Imitation of the Shape of Goods provided for in the Japanese Unfair Competiton Prevention Law of 1993

Kazufumi DOHI

Unfair Competition Prevention Law of May 19, 1993 prohibits slavish imitation of the shape of goods. This prohibition extend to the act of selling, etc. goods which are exactly like the slavish imitation goods, within three years of the date of first selling the goods. By prohibiting a free ride on the original goods under these provisions, the established theory says that it is intended to protect the fruit in which the first runner has invested fund and labor for commercialization. Is there every reason to interprete so ? We should make a limited interpretation of the means of slavish imitation as the means of technical reproduction.

Disintermediation and Transformation
- Innovation in Internet IT and Introducing the Concept of Fair Use. -

Yukio OHNO

This article tries to analyse the structural change caused by Network society in the fields of Telecommunication, Finance and Intellectual Property through the key word of Disintermediation and also, focussing on the issue of Transformation, to examine whether or not it is possible that the concept of Fair Use can be introduced in Japan as a standard in dispute resolution in copyright law.

An overview of current Trademark Law issues in Japan

Kanji KUDO

About forty years have passed since the present Japanese Trademark Law(Showa34[1959],Law No.127)came into force. It has had been several revisions to cope with economical and international development. This airticle will outline how the JPO and courts have tried to interpret and apply the law to solve various problems that have been pointed out over the years.

The Extent of binding Force of the Court Decision revoking Trial Decision on the Patent Office

Hiroshi FURUSAWA

Tokyo High Court has in 2001 delivered a Decision regarding the Extent of binding Force of the Court Decision revoking Trial Decision on the Patent Office, following the Supreme Court Decision 1992, but substantially modifying it. However, the Opinion of the Court is questionable.

Application of Notary

Akira NAKATSUGAWA

  1. Notary system in Japan
    1. appointed notary
    2. prohibition to reveal the case
    3. district where notary performs his duties
  2. General provision concerning the performance of duties
  3. New request movement and system
  4. the electronic notarization system

Basic Law on Intellectual Property

Toshifumi HIRAI

The purpose of this Law shall be, for the objective of realizing a dynamic economy and society that is based on the creation of added values through the creation of new intellectual property and effective exploitation of such intellectual property in light of a growing necessity for intensifying the international competitiveness of Japanese industry in response to the changes in the social and economic situations at home and abroad, to promote measures for the creation, protection and exploitation of intellectual property in a focused and planned manner by stipulating the basic ideas on the creation, protection and exploitation of intellectual property and the basic measures to achieve the ideas, clarifying the responsibilities of the State, local governments, universities, etc. and business enterprises, establishing the Intellectual Property Policy Headquarters, and providing stipulations on the development of a promotion program on the creation, protection and exploitation of intellectual property.

The Advisory Commission on Patent Law Reform, A Report to the Secretary of Commerce, August 1992 [4]

Industrial Property Training Institute Research Office, JPO

Shoji HAMADA, Yoshimi OKADA

Publication of the PATENT STUDIES No.34

A scientific journal PATENT STUDIES No.34,edited by Industrial Property Training Institutethe Research Office of Japan Patent Office has been publised from Japanese Institute of Invention and Innovation.
This is to promote public understanding on the importance of the industrial property system and to stimulate basic studies on this subject.
The journal is biannualy published in only Japanese.

The contents & Abstracts are as followings.

Cooperation with Hungary in Scientific Research

Jyunjiro KANAMORI

A Study on the Legal Protection of Scientific Discoveries

Masashi HANAMURA

Should scientific discoveries be protected legally or not? If it should be, under what rule, on what condition should it be protected?
This has long been a controversial issue since the beginning of Patent Law. But there has been a non-visible boundary between a scientific discovery and an invention, the former half of which is under the norms of the scientific community and the latter half of which is under Patent Law. The two things have changed the situation so much. One is the rapid progress of science and technology, and the other is the global competition. Both appeared in the late 20th century. The norms of the scientific community do not work well any more and people are seeking patent protection for scientific discoveries.
Is Patent Law the best way for it? Is there any other way to protect them?

The study for the patent protection related analysis of three-dimensional protein structure

Itsuki SHIMBO,Takayuki HIROSE and Shigeyuki YOKOYAMA

With recent advance of structural genomic researches, needs to provide patent protection over its findings became apparent. However, patenting has been limited due to the lack of standards. Since the area itself is new, there is no substantial concepts or information necessary to obtain patents. We will discuss these issues specific to the area of structural analysis of proteins, with examples including in-silico screening and pharmacophore.

Application of the Doctrine of Equivalents to Biotechnological Cases under European, U.S. and Asian Patent Laws

Eiko MURAYAMA-KAYANO and Li WESTERLUND

Festo decision at U.S. Supreme Court was come up for issue of "the doctrine of equivalents (DOE)". DOE brings consistency of language with the essence of invention in some cases. We reviewed the application of DOE under European , U.S. and Asian patent laws , and analyzed feature of biotechnological cases in this paper.

How should the Antimonopoly Act be applied to the conduct allegedly based on the intellectual property rights ?
- Case on the trade mark application by Hokkaido Newspaper Company -

Kyozo SUZUKI

A chain of conducts taken by Hokkaido Newspaper Company as a exclusion of a new entrant was decided against the Japan's Antimonopoly Act("private monopolization").
This paper examines the relation between a scope of intellectual property right and the application of the Antimonopoly Act.

Changes and Trends of Intellectual Property System in China With its Admission to the World Trade Organization

Linda LIU

In order to enter the WTO, China has revised and implemented Patent Law, Trademark Law and Copyright Law, promulgated the regulations for the protection of Layout-design of Integrated Circuits, the regulations for Computer Software Protection, Regulations for Technology Import and Export Administration, etc., and a series of judicial interpretations. Through these efforts China will seriously perform its obligations and abide by the WTO regulations. In this paper writer will make a summary to the revisions of Chinese intellectual property laws, regulations and try to talk about the developing trend of the Chinese intellectual property laws in recent future years.

The Advisory Commission on Patent Law Reform, A Report to the Secretary of Commerce, August 1992 [3]

Industrial Property Training Institute Research Office, JPO

Shoji HAMADA, Yoshimi OKADA

Publication of the PATENT STUDIES No.33

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A scientific journal PATENT STUDIES No.33,edited by Industrial Property Training Institutethe Research Office of Japan Patent Office has been publised from Japanese Institute of Invention and Innovation.
This is to promote public understanding on the importance of the industrial property system and to stimulate basic studies on this subject.
The journal is biannualy published in only Japanese.

The contents & Abstracts are as followings.

DREAMS & FOUNTAINPEN

Yo TAKEYAMA

"idea" in Japanese copyright law

Nobuhiro NAKAYAMA

Copyright law protects "expression of idea". The concept of "idea" in copyright of law has not been studied deeply as such. This article focuses on the concept, together with discussing the theory of "idea-expression dichotomy".

Curent Issues on New registration system for Partial Designs

Shozo YOSIHARA

New registration system for Partial Designs was established on January 1,1999. As this new system started functionary,it brought up to new issues on Partial Designs and registration system.
Various interpretaion were also suggested to understand new system as whole.
The Aim of this article is to point out current issues on this system and to sketch out interpretaion of this whole system to find out the way to solve these new issues.

How should employers design remuneration policy for employees' invention
:one perspective based on Innovation Lottery Theory

Ichiro NAKAYAMA

Recent legal controversy regarding remuneration for employees' invention revealed how difficult it is to reward employees' contribution properly. While there are some problems in current legal framework, more focus should be put on each organization's policy. "Innovation Lottery Theory," a recent study on the reward mechanism for innovation, contains useful suggestions for designing remuneration policy for employees' invention. This paper first examines the current legal framework. Then, it takes a brief look at current practice in private/public organizations. Finally, it discusses policy implications based on applying "Innovation Lottery Theory".

Case that granted Injunction against Infringement of a Process Patent, although the accused infringer had an outside party perform one of the steps

Ryoko ISEKI

This court decision hold that a Process Patent was directly infringed when the accused infringer did not perform the whole steps of the patent by himself, but having an outside party do one of the steps. This paper examined claims for injunction against infringement by multiple persons, with a comment for the Report Presented by the Intellectual Property Committee of the Industrial Structure Council in December 2001.

TLO, new engine of the University-Industry collaboration

Keisuke SHIMIZU

For revival of Japanese economy, it is required to create new business one after another. University technologies are expected to be major resources of new business. As the change driver for promoting new University-Industry Collaboration, TLOs have started their tech-transfer business. University's clear policy and solid organization for that collaboration are required for expanding TLOs activities.

TPosthumous Works of Korekiyo TAKAHASHI(6)
-----Instructions for the Draft Japan Patent Requlations(1881)----
Industrial Property Training Institute Research Office, JPO

Ryo MARUYAMA

Original Draft Japan Patent Requlations discussed in October 1881at the Ministry of Africurture and Commerce with related documents for the first and second reading in the departmental Council.
The Advisory Commission on Patent Law Reform, A Report to the Secretary of Commerce, August 1992 [2]
Industrial Property Training Institute Research Office, JPO
DA, Yoshimi OKADA

Publication of the PATENT STUDIES No.32

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Holidays in New York

Hiroshi NAKACHI

Claims Based upon Patent Rights in Which Reasons to Void Apparently Exist and Abuse of Rights
-- Judgement rendered on February 24, 2000 by the Third Petty Bench of the Supreme Court of Japan, Case (O) 364/1998, Claim for confirmation of non existence of liabilities (Minshu 54, 4-1368, Hanrei Jiho 1710-68) --

Toshiaki MAKINO

This case has become the center of considerable public attention as a patent dispute between the U.S.A. and Japan, because it concerns a worldwide famous patent by Dr. Jack Kirby, a Nobel Prize winner, on a fundamental invention in the development of semiconductor integrated circuits, which is a basis of current information technology. Moreover, changing the precedents by the Daishin 'in from the Meiji-era, the Supreme Court judged that a court examining patent infringement cases may judge whether or not reasons for invalidating the patent clearly exist. After examination, if such reasons clearly exist in the patent, then, unless other justifiable reasons exists, the claim, etc. based upon such patent is disallowed as an abuse of rights. This case, together with the Supreme Court judgement rendered on February 24, 1998 by the Third Party Bench (Minshu 52,1-113, Ball Spline Bearing Case), will have significant impact on the examination of patent infringement cases.

Need for Universalized Interpretation in Intellectual Property Law

Shigeaki MITSUDA

After discussing legal hermeneutics in general, a cursory review of Japanese thoughts on law interpretation is taken, followed by a bird' s- eye view of US hermeneutical thoughts, so as to offer a convenient background for would-be law interpreters to place their standpoints in correct perspective. Then, as an example, the instance of interpretation of a problematic text regarding applied art (Art.2 (2)) in Japanese Copyright Law is taken up, to be compared with a corresponding Berne Convention provision. Finally, the necessity of a universalizing interpretation, namely, interpretation that gives due regard to the provisions of international conventions and to the general currents in foreign laws.

The Consideration on Some Legal Concepts in the Copyright Law

Tatsuki SHIBUYA

Putting too much weight on the literal sense of each copyrightable work exemplified in the law tends to lead us away from correct application of the law. This tendency will be shown here by citing several recent cases of courts.

Constitutional consideration for a judicial decision expressing a patent invalodity -- a case which dismissed a claim specifying the Supreme Court decision of April 11, 2000 at a litigation for the infringement of a utility model right. --

Yasushi AOKI

The findings of the litigation for the infringement of a utility model right specifically quoted the Supreme Court decision of April 11, 2000 which recognised that the claims based on a patent right shall be abuses of rights where the invalid reasons are evident in such claims. A decision such as that of the "Daishinin" (the Supreme Court in prewar Japan) of 1905 (the 37th year, Meiji era) ought to be valid under the Constitution of the Meiji era, "pays a regime administratif " (the administrative nation) that prohibited the ability to decide judicially patents invalidity. However, under the current Constitution of "Justizstaat" (the judicial nation) the above precedent given by the Supreme Court is a natural conclusion.

The en banc decision of Court of Appeal of the Federal Circuit regarding the Procecution History Estoppel (Fest Case)

Naoyoshi TAKIGUCHI

This is to introduce the "Festo case", that is, the en banc decision of Court of Appeals of the Federal Circuit regarding the Prosecution History Estoppel

Posthumous Works of Korekiyo TAKAHASHI(5)
-----Resume of discussion at a session of the Tokyo Chamber of Commerce(1878)----

Industrial Property Training Institute Research Office, JPO

Ryo MARUYAMA

Record of the Special Council Committee of the House of Diet for Revising the Industrial Property Laws in 1921 [15]

Industrial Property Training Institute Research Office, JPO

Yoshikaz INAVA

The Advisory Commission on Patent Law Reform, A Report to the Secretary of Commerce, August 1992 [1]

Industrial Property Training Institute Research Office, JPO

Shoji HAMADA, Yoshimi OKADA

Publication of the PATENT STUDIES No.31

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A Nation Without a Strategy Cannot Survive

Yuriko KOIKE

The Concept of the Right of Publicity Emerged from the Recent Judgments and the Infringement of the right of publicity

Makoto ITO

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the concept of the right of publicity emerged from the recent judgments,and to examine how to understand the infringement of the right of publicity with regard to the point that "what kind of acts will constitute the infringement of the right of publicity," as quoting the cases including ones regarding the categories of acts with no previous judgments.

Pro-Patent Policy V. Competition Policy
-Toward The Balanced IPR-Law Regime into 21st Centurey-

Yutaka KIYOKAWA

IPR laws are market laws of intangible matters. At the same time, one of the character of IPR is the exclusibity, which sometime conflict with the competition policy. Nowadays, so-called pro-patent policy is proclaimed in Japan. In this litelature, devided three phases Japanese pro-patent policy, I analyse how the competition policy should be applied to make a good balance between IPR and competition in each phase.

Human Genome and Patents

Koichi SUMIKURA

Protection of Intellectual property rights on human genome is currently being debated internationally. This paper reviews the discussion in the past and presents the novel problems that might arise in several technical areas concerning human genome research, based on the trend of latest innovation.

Two Important Cases over "Candy Candy"

Makoto NAGATSUKA

A detailed examination on two important cases over "Candy Candy" which was a favorite with girls from the latter half of 1970s to 1980s. The comic artist used her own illustration of characters in that comic without consent of its story writer. The two cases concern the copyright of the story writer on pictorial use of a serialized comic, especially the required condition of derivative work and joint work. The responsibility of goods maker and the calculation of damages were also disputed.

Legislative Activities of the US Electronic Commerce Laws
- International Trend of Information Technology-

Masanobu KATOH

During the last two years of the Clinton Administration, the US economy expanded further thanks to the development and promotion of Information Technology (IT). In the 106th Congress, there were several important laws enacted such as the Electronic Signature in Global and National Commerce Act and Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act. Also, although there was no legislation, there were important discussions regarding possible legislation on Internet and e commerce tax issues, privacy protection and prevention of computer-related crimes. One can notice that the focus of US legislation on IT issues is moving from general framework issues to more specific areas of law.

Posthumous Works of Korekiyo TAKAHASHI(4)
-----Resume of discussion at a session of the Tokyo Chamber of Commerce(1878)----

Research Office, Industrial Property Training Institute, JPO

Ryo MARUYAMA

Record of the Special Council Committee of the House of Diet for Revising the Industrial Property Laws in 1921 [14]

Research Office, Industrial Property Training Institute, JPO

Yoshikaz INAVA

[Last updated 10 September 2004]

Contact

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JAPAN PATENT OFFICE

Fax : +81-3-3595-2792
E-mail : PA9A00@jpo.go.jp