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Publication of the PATENT STUDIES No.11-No.20

PATENT STUDIES No.20__1995.9

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Thinking on Amendments of Patent Law __Taiji SHINOHARA

Trade Secrets and Evidence in civil Procedure __Yoshihiko UMEMOTO

__Deposition and Affidavit are effective measure for Protection of Trade Secrets. The monograph offers solution from a view point of Civil Procedure.

Zur präzisen Formulierung des Patentanspruchs bezüglich eines neuen-insbesondere
__durch Genrekombination geschaffenen-Erzeugnisses und zum Verzicht
__auf weiterreichenden Schutz
Überlegungen anhand der Entscheidung des Bezirksgerichts osaka vom 27.10.1994 "t-PA"
____Tomoko TAKAI

__Die Neufassung des ursprünglichen Patentanspruchs im Erteilungsverfahren, die den Patentgegenstand einschränkt und die im Falle eines neuen Erzeugnisses durch Genrekombination möglicherweise mehrmals durchgeführt wird, sollte nicht als einen alle Äquivalente ausschliesenden Verzicht auf weiterreichenden Schutz angesehen werden, sofern die Neufassung vorgenommen wird, um den Erfindungsgegenstand präzise zu formulieren.

The Administration of the Japanese Patent Office under the
__Administrative Procedure Law __Yasushi AOKI

__In 1993 was enacted the Administrative Procedure Law(APL)of Japan. The provisions of Chapter II and III of APL shall not apply to the "dispositions" of the Patent Office. This paper states how Article 1(ideals and purposes of APL)and Chapter IV(administrative guidance)should be exercised by the administration of the Japanese Patent Office.

Patent Policy in Public University
__- Academic Values and Patent System - __Yuriko INOUE

__Policy on patenting and commercializing research results in public university should be adopted carefully so as to preserve traditional academic values and academic freedom. Additionally, we must construct the more efficient system for patent management with the assistance of the private sector.

The Supreme Court Decision Regarding a Registration Requirement-
__of Similar Designs __FURUSAWA Hiroshi

__A review of the Supreme Court decision of Februaty 24, 1995 which revocated the Tokyo High decision of March 28, 1991 with the ground that design registration applications which were filed before the application date of the similar design application but after the application date of the principal design registration to which said similar design is similar and which had been finally rejected may be used as citations for the pursose of reiection of said similar design application, whether the cited designs are similar to said principal design or not.

Record of the Special Council Committi of the House of Diet for
__Revising the Industrial Property Laws in 1921[3]
__ Research Office, Industrial Property Training Institute

On Collection of Documents(20)
__- CURlO BOOKS such as wood-printing or brush-lettering -
Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library

PATENT STUDIES No.19__1995.3

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Patent in the market __Satoshi UEMATSU

Reverse engineering under the law in Japan __Shin MOTOKI

__There is a dispute about legality of a reverse engineering to computer program. I discussed in this article that under the strict interpetation of the copy right law and the law concerning integrated circuit of semi-conductor in Japan, a user may not make a reverse engineering to computer program.

MPU and Patent - Foundry Relationship and Licence Agreement
____Kaoru KOBASHI

__It is popular to enter into license agreements in computer industry. Sometimes an allegedly infringing company entrusts fabrication of its products to a licensee of the patent at issue. The monograph offers solution from a viewpoint that who practices the patent.

Tokyo High Court Decisions Regarding Registration Requirement of Similar Designs
____Hiroshi FURUSAWA

__There is a great diversity of opinions among the Tokyo High Court Decisions regarding registration requirements of "similar designs" stipulated in Article 10, Clause 1 of Design Law, two decisions denying Patent Office's practice in connection with the examination of registration application of "similar designs" , one decision affirming it. The author agree to the conclusion of the latter decision, though not to the reasoning thereof.

Protection for Works of Art
- Designs which the Japanese Design Law does not protect -
____Fumio KAWASOE

__This article defines the actual condition of any creation protected as an industrial design under the Japanese Design Law of 1959. Then, this article will indicate some points which need to be further refined in respect of the design protection practice and interpretation of the Law, when we consider the way to protect any works of art under the copyright law in Japan. Further, this article will furnish the information on the subject matter and the requirements for works under the copyright law.

On Restriction of Patent Claim __Tsuneteru ARAGAKI

__The decision of the Tokyo High Court on october 26, 1994, 1993(Gyo Ke)No.151,states that an amendment made in a demand for trial for correction, which deletes the description concerning "adhesive material" from the detailed description of invention in the specification and drawings without amending the patent claim itself, does not come under "restriction of a patent claim" (subsection 1(1), Section 126, Japanese Patent Law).

The Trend and Outlook of the European Intellectual Property System
____Akira OKAWA

__In line with the unification of the EU market, the European intellectual property system is under way of its harmonization and improvement. The most typical example thereof is the implementation and development of EPC. However, the possible enforcement of CPC is not expected in the near future. The different interpretations of the scope of claims and the exhaustion of European patents are discussed. In addition, the usefulness of the utility model system is tended to be reviewed in Europe.

Record of the Special Council Committi of the House of Diet for
__Revising the Industrial Property Laws in 1921[2]
__ Research Office, Industrial Property Training Institute

On Collection of Documents(19)
__- Rare Books - __
Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library

PATENT STUDIES No.18__1994.10

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On Recent International Cooperation for Intellectual Property
____Shingo TSUJI

Warenzeichenrecht und Geschützte Marke nach UWG in Japan.
__Eine rechtsvergleichende Studie mit deutschem Recht
____Katsuya TAMAI

__In Japan ist die Marken, die keine Verkehrsgeltung wie Ausstattungsrecht in Deutschland haben, auch nach UWG geschützt. Diese Abhandlung soll dem Dogmatik für Prioritätsregelung zwischen die geschtitzte Marken nach UWG und eingetragene Warenzeichenrecht beitragen, die gesetzlich nicht ausdrücklich bestimmt ist.

Exercize of a patent right over the patented product after its first sale
__- after U.S. cases - __Naoko TAKAHASHI

__It is a prevailing view that, once a suitably patented product is placed in circulation, the patent may no longer be asserted after its first sale. Often advocated reasons are based either on the first sale doctrine or on the implied license theory.
__This paper examines these reasonings after U.S. cases and concludes that the two are distinct and should co-exist with their different scopes of application.

Deciding the similarity of a trade mark composed of a trade mark
__which is famous in relation to designated goods __Haruo GOTO

__Where a trade mark is composed of a trade mark which is famous in relation to designated goods and other letters, it will be noted that the phonetic sounds or meaning may be judged not only on the famous trade mark but the distinguishable letters part of the element of the trade marks.

The Industrial Structural Adjustment and Countermeasures in ASEAN
____Kayoko KITAMURA

__ASEAN experienced a high level of economic growth in the latter of the 1980s and succeeded in the export-orientd industrialization of their economies.
__Although, ASEAN now must upgrade their industrial structure by the change of world economies, especially by more competition in manufacturing from neibouring economie such as China and Vietnam. ASEAN countiries are tackling certain clouds on their horizon. These include the limit of technological development ability, human resources shortage, the lack of industrial infurastructure, etc.
__Not only that, they are under pressure to accept a greater role and responsibility in grobal economies.
__Given the greater interdependence between Japan and ASEAN, Japan, both government and private business groups should strength and expand cooperations to this region.

A Study of Patent Cross-Licensing
Japan Intellectual Property Association

Record of the Special Council Committi of the House of Diet for
__Revising the Industrial Property Laws in 1921[1]
__ Research Office, Industrial Property Training Institute

On Collection of Documents(18)
Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library

PATENT STUDIES No.17__1994.3

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IT Industry and Venture Business __Takuma YAMAMOTO

Scope of the protection for a registered design __Ryoji SAITO

L'atteinte illégitime à la propriété intellectuelle et la théorie générale de la
__responsabilité civile. __Kaoru KAMATA

__En cas d'une atteinte illégitime à la propriété intéllectuelle, l'indemnité de contrefacon doit avoir une double fonction dissuasive et reparatrice. L'auteur de cette article souligne, aprés avoir consulté les travaux préparatoires des dispositions législatives concernant la détermination de l'indemnité ainsi que la théorie générale de responsabilité civile, le montant de l'indemnité puisse, en consequence, etre supérieur au préjudice subi.

Historical Background of Skyrocketing Patent Damages __H. Henry. KODA

__The dramatic increases in patent infringement damages represent the fundamental shift of the international patent practice from antipatent to pro-patent. In particular, the rapid changes in the reasonable royalty and lost profit draw our attention.

Right of Use and Right of Reproduction in Copyright __Shinichi YAMANAKA

__There is no right of use in copyright. But some works(a sketch for three-dimensional artistic work, a computer program etc.) could be protected more effectively when right of use was regulated in their copyright. In this article the author examines the legislative history of such works, and suggests the consideration to interpret the right of reproduction of such works as flexible as to it plays the part of right of use.

The Compensation of Damage in Court
decisions concerning intellectual property

Der Schaden Ersatz im Präjudiz
betreffend intellektual Eigentum
____osamu TAKURA

__This Article shows some japanese court dicisions, especially compensation of damage cases. I picked up the cases which handle legal judgement concerning intellectual property.
__You can find, through 1992 cases, of district court how to inspect legel points in japanese courts.
__The conclusion is that they have two dimensions, one is very concise inspection, the other is very rough dicision, according to each cases. The two aspects are far from each others.
__ But you can see, judges are urge to find good solution in these cases.

Infringements of Computer Software Patents
- Clame Interpretation under the Revised Patent Law and Examination Standard
__ on Software-elated Inventions - __Kiyonori MITSUNUSHI

Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law(13, Final)
Tetsuo TOMITA/Research Office, Industrial Property Training Institute

On Collection of Documents(17)
Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library

PATENT STUDIES No.16__1993.10

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Patentsystem and its raison d'être __Nobuhiro NAKAYAMA

Scope of the protection for a registered design __Ryoji SAITO

__The structure of judgments on the issue whether the accused design is similar to the registered design in suits for infringement. -

The Indirect Infringement of Copyright __Masayoshi SUMIDA

Über die Ähnlichkeit der Warenzeichen __TAKABAYASHI Katsumi

__Das oberstegericht beurteilt:Über die Ähnlichkeit der Warenzeichen muß man beurteilen aufgrund der praktischen Handelsumstände von Waren. Es kann sein, daß die Warenzeichen, deren Aussehen, Vorstellung und Nennung beim ersten Anblick gegenseitig nicht ähnlich scheinen, als ähnlich beurteilt werden können je nach der prakitischen, korperlichen Handelsverhältnissen. Also auch die Ähnlichkeit der Waren soll aufgrund der Beweise. die die körperliche Handelsverhaltnisse bewiesen, beurteilt werden.

Application of Civil RICO Act to Patent-Related Predicate Acts in the U.S.
____Tadayoshi HOMMA

__This paper explores the possibility and theories in applying the RICO Act, originally developed in the U.S. as a deterrent against organized crimes, to unlawful acquisition and enforcement of patent rights.

Biotechnology and Patent Disputes __Koichi ONO

__Biotechnology is a technology involving the activities of living matters. Issues in patent disputes peculiar to biotechnology are discussed referring to existed, pending and potential cases.

The Attitude of Japan before WW II toward the Madrid Agreement
__for the Repression of False or Deceptive Indications of Source of Goods
____Aiko HORIE

__Whether to be a party to the Madrid Agreement had been one of the difficu1t dipplomatic problems to Japan for a few decades before WW II. Based on the documents about that, this paper examines what attitude Japan took toward it in prewar times.

Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law(12)
Tetsuo TOMITA/Research Office, Industrial Property Training Institute

On Collection of Documents(16)
Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library

PATENT STUDIES No.15__1993.3

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Comprehension for Global Harmonization __Toyomaro YOSHIDA

Case Study on "Confirmation of Technical Scope"
__- From a Recent Court Decision - __Toshihiro AKIYOSHI

__It is a matter of interest to find, in court decisions, a different way of thinking to draw reasonable conclusion. When all of the components of a patented invention are publicly known and all that the subject matter comprises all of the components defined in a claim of such patented invention, it is perceived in practice that a conclusion of non-infringement is drawn in view of the enforcement of such patent right.

How should Pioneer Invention be constructed under the patent system in Japan?
____Shin MOTOKI

__In this article, at first I researched several court decisions and theories concerning "pioneer patent" in the United States, then I expressed my opinon about how a concept of "pioneer patent" should work on a construction of claim in case of patent infringement under the patent system in Japan.

" Right to exploit name or portrait for commercial purposes"
____Hiroshi SAlTO

__Here examined is whether a right to exploit human name or portrait might exist as an economic right independent of personal rights. An opacity still remains in respect of possibility to separate an economic value of name or portrait from its human owner. That makes in paticular the legal character including transferability, the subject, the duration of this right indistinct.

On the Decision of Supreme Coust on The "clip" Case recognizing a Restriction of
patent claimby the Amendment of detailed dercription of invention and drawings while not amending the Description of patent claim itself
____Shin-ichi KUKUMINATO

__When the technical meaning of "fixing member" as described in the claim for patent is not synonimously determined as clear and a decision of correction trial in the Patent Office comes into force to delete from detailed description of invention in the specification and drawings all the description that adhesive material(adhesive layer)may be included in the fixing member, the claim for patent is restricted without amending the description of the claim for patent itself.

__Patent and Genome Research __Kotaro NAWA

__The US NIH has filed patent applications on DNA sequence of unknown funtion. Many scientists accuse the NIH insisting that the patents will hamper the free exchange of basic data. However, some de facto rules will be established to protect the potential and industrial value of the data.

Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law (11)
Research Office, Industrial Property Training Institute

On Collection of Documents(15)
Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library

PATENT STUDIES No.14__1992.10

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professional Discipline in Another Profession __Zentaro KITAGAWA

Schutzumfangslehre des Patents in Deutschland
__- Neue Tendenzen in Literatur und Rechtsprechung -
____Takashi OSETO

__Über die Schutzumfangslehre des Patents diskutiert man neuerdings um Rechtsprechung des × 14 PatG in Deutschland. Dabei ist der Schutzumfang des Patents entsprechend der Art des Patenteingriffs konzipiert. Die Gedanken ziehen als neue Schutzumfangslehre an Stelle von Dreiteilungslehre unsere Aufmerksamkeit auf sich.

The Doctorine of Equivalents in U.S.Patent Law __Naoki MIZUTANI

__In the U.S.A.the doctorine of equivalents has been established in the U.S.courts and is now still being advanced.
__This paper outlines the history and discusses the content and the problem of the doctorine.

A Pre-war Supreme Court Decision on the Meaning of "Goods" of Sec.1 Pr.
__1 No.1 of the Unfair Competition Prevention Law
__- A Brief Comment with the Text - __Shigeaki MITSUDA

__The decision said for the first time that the "goods" of the above mentioned text should include foods served in a restanrant.

Widerrechtlichkeit von unmittelbare Leistungsübernahme
__im japanischen Recht __Yoshiyuki TAMURA

__Anmerkung zu Urteil von Tokyo Koto-Saibansho 1991.12.17., das bcjaht Widerrechtlichkeit von direkter Übernahme fremder Ware nach Artikel 709 Zivil Recht(unerlaubte Handlungen), trotzdem sie von Sondergesetzen über den gewerblichen Rechtsscutz und Urheberrecht nicht erfasst wird.

Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law (10)
Research Office,Industrial Property Training lnstitute

Recent Decisions on Claim Interpretation
Yasuro WADA·Toshiaki HOSOE·Masamichi TOHEI

__Patent claims are very important in determining scope of patent protection. This paper introduces two decisions of CAFC in the U.S.which denied infringement based on All Elements Rule, and three decisions of the Supreme Court in Germany on the doctrine of equivalents under the current German patent law amended in order to meet EPC Article 69.

On Collection of Documents(14)
Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library

PATENT STUDIES No.13__1992.3

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Today and Tomorrow of Trademark System __Minoru NAKAMURA

Scope of Similarity of Registered Trademark __Tatsuki SHIBUYA

__The amendment of the trademark law in 1992 has accepted the concept of similarity of service to good and of service mark to trademark. The concept is analyzed in this treatise.

Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law(9)
Research Office,Industrial Property Training lnstitute

On the Supreme Court Decision regarding a Requirement for divisional
__Design Registration Application __Hiroshi FURUSAWA

__A study of the first decision of the Supreme Court which judged about "design registration application comprising two or more designs" in connection with the legality of divisional design registration application under Clause 1, Article 10bis, Design Law.

Recent Decisions on Biotechnology Patent __Yoshiyuki TANAKA
__Decisions of Appeal Board and Court on Biotechnology patent have been accumulated in the United States. Then, Europe followed the United States. Recently in JAPAN several Biotechnology patent-related decisions were published. Among the recent decisions, we find decisions, some changes in the criteria of legal judgement. There lie the basic differences among USA, EPO and JAPAN as far as the Biotechnology is concerned.

Amendment of the Cabinet order on Patent Registration with the entry into
__force of the Law of Civil Provisional Measures __lkuyoshi YAMANAKA

On Collection of Documents(13)
Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library

PATENT STUDIES No.12__1991.9

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Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions __Takeshi HIJIKATA

Interface and Antitrust
__- Market Definition and Related Problems - __Tadayoshi HOMMA

__EC Council has recently adopted its Computer Software Directive. Among the problems raised by the Directive are those related to the copyright protection of computer software interface. This paper discusses possible antitrust challenges to an abuse of such protection.

Mark of Corporate Groups __Shinjiro KIYOSE

__If a group of independent corporations shares common interest being unified through a common mark, the mark to symbolize such unification must be protected.
__Such protection is effected mainly based on the Unfair Competition Law.
__There are many deputing cases concerning such protection.

Neue Strömung des Muster(Design)schutzrechts
__- Ein Vergleich zwischen CDPA 1988 und Max-Planck-Entwurf -
____Takashi OSETO


__Als neues System des Musterschutzes ziehen neuerdings "the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988" von England und "Eutwurf eines europäischen Musterrechts" des Max-Planck-Instituts von Deutchland unsere Aufmerksamkeit auf sich. Diese Beitrag vergleicht die beiden Systeme hauptsächlich in bezug auf ihre materielle Seite und weist insbesondere auf die Probleme vom englischen System hin.

"Lack" of Intellectual Property Protection in Japan Described
__in NTE Report:Fair Comments ? __Mitsue DAIRAKU

__"NTE Report". the USTR's annual report, has played an significant role in the "trade negotiation by power" scheme of the United States. This article examines the background of the scheme and the report, introduces the alleged "lack" of intellectual property protection in Japan depicted in the recent NTE Reports. and evaluates the criticism.

Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law from
__from 1911 to 1934(8)
Research Office,Industrial Property Training lnstitute

On the Decision of Supreme Court on the "triglyceride" Case concerning
_the Recognition of subject-matter of an invention in application.
____Masayoshi SUMIDA

__On the Decision of Supreme Court on the "Triglyceride" Case Recognition of subject-matter of an invention in application.

The Recent Developments in the Patent Protection of Animals
__and Plants __Kiyoshi YAMASHITA

__The questions about whether and how animals and plants should be protected under patent laws are internationally discussed. Ethical questions, safety and economic impacts on farming industry are major issues in discussing patenting of animals. While, the relationship between patent protection and plant variety protection is the most difficult question to be solved before reaching a conclusion on the legal protection of plants.

On Collection of Documents(12)
Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library

PATENT STUDIES No.11__1991.3

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Leagal Protection of Computer Program __Gaishi HIRAIWA

Einige Betrachtungen über Parallelimporte. __Saburo KUWATA

I . Durch z.B.das Urteil des amerikanischen Höchstgerichtshofes von 1988 ist das Problem der Parallelimporte von Originalwaren bereits zu einen Art "internationalen Fallrechtes" geworden.
Dazu führt in der Tat, wie der Verfasser betont, die universale Auslegungsmethode durch Fallrechtsvergleichung.
II . Das Territorialitätsprinzip als ein umfassendes Ordnungsprinzip des internationalen gewerblichen Rechtsschutzes - durch dessen Überwindung die Theorie der internationalen Erschöpfung den Weg zu Parallelimporten öffnet.
III. Neue Probleme ergeben sich aus den Beschaffenheitsunterschieden zwischen den parallel eingeführten und inländischen Waren; hierzu einige amerikanische Entscheidungen.

Unfair Competition Preventing Act and Authors' Right
____Kohji ABE

__This article deals with the two subjects, that is title and preservation of trade secrets.
__The former is the problem concerning relationship between the Unfair Competition Preventing Act and the "Title" which has been discussed whether or not being recognized as a copyrighted matter and sometimes it has been said that it might be better to be protected by Unfair Competition Preventing Act than Copyright Act.
__The latter is the problem concerning relationship between protection of trade secrets which was enacted by the amended Unfair Competition Preventing Act 1990 and Copyright Act.

Eizo HIRAYAMA and his Design Examination __Kohji OGATA

__Eizo Hirayama was the first Japanese who had gone abroad to study design.
__After returing from Vienna, while serving to examine application of design patent at the Patent office, he did a great deal throughout the Meiji Era on behalf of the campaign for enlightenment and popularization of design.

The Decision of Japanese Supreme Court on the "POPEYE"
__Case concerning the Scope of Protection of Trade Mark
____Masami TSUJI

__The holder of registered trade mark infringing another person's copy right may not stop a merchant from selling goods with a mark similar to his trade mark, so far as the latter mark is attached to the goods under legitimate license of author or his successor.

Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law from
__from 1911 to 1934(7)
Research Office,Industrial Property Training lnstitute

Trend of Software Protection by means of Patents in major Countries
____Itaru IWASAWA

__Patentability of software invention in the trilateral (Japan, U.S.A. and Europe) is analyzed and compared between each others considering the patent laws, guidelines, decisions of patent appeals or judicial cases and actual examples. In the U.S.A., more cases have been tried than in Japan or Europe and the "Freeman - Walter - Abele Test" indicated by the Supreme Court becomes

On Collection of Documents(11)
Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library

[Last updated 10 April 2002]


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