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Publication of the PATENT STUDIES No.1~No.10

PATENT STUDIES No.10__1990.10

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Technology as the Fundamentals of Economy

__Hajime KARATSU

Personlichkeitsrecht and Right of Publicity

__Shigeo OHIE

__Surveying the law-system and judicial decisions of Personlichkeitsrecht and right of publicity in Japan, a conclusion is obtained that the protection of rights of publicity of dead persons are possible under the Unfair-Competition-Law, but a new protection law shound be necessary for better protections.

One opinion concerning the comparing of the trademarks

__- On the stand point of litigations -

__Masao MIYAKE

__I have believed since rather long time ago, for the practicing lawyers including me, that it is a very difficult eternal problem as the riddle of Sphinx to decide whether two trade-marks are similar or not and the reson why it is an unsolvable riddle is that the trade-mark is a living thing which functions in actual commerce. Therefore, in the case of making a comparison between two trade-marks, it is the key point to decide whether they are confusingly similar or not each other in actual commerce. In this short article, I tried to find some grounds for my method of thinking in two decisions of courts.

Recent Patent Situation in Japan

_- Shortening of Patent Examination Period and Amendment

__of the Unfair Competition Prevention Law -

__Nobuo MONYA

__This article will study, in the comparative law method, the shortening of the patent examination period and the protection of proprietary information in connection with the patent system from the viewpoint of the international protection and harmonization of the intellectual property rights. With respect to the shortening of the patent examination period, since the patent examination system in Japan is the most rigid in the world, the examination takes a long time, but as the effectiveness of the recognized patent is very high, it is desired that the quality of such patent examination will be maintained even after the realization of the shortening of the patent examination period. With respect to the protection of proprietary information, since the effect of the publication of application under the Patent Law of Japan is the weakest of all other advanced nations' patent laws, as compared with the protection of know-how under the amended Unfair Competition Prevention Law, it is desired that it will be strengthened.

Patent Official Gazette and Announcement on the Publications

__defined under Section 30(1)of the Patent Act


Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law from

__from 1911 to 1934(6)

Research Office,Industrial Property Training lnstitute

Recent Developments in European Design Protection

__Shigeaki MITSUDA

__In Europe in recent years we have seen successive amendments of national design protection laws. The British new law of 1988 is an outstanding example. The laws of other European countries, such as West Germany, France, Italy, Benelux and Nordic countries also show noteworthy developments and differences from that of ours. Besides, following in the steps of the uniform European patent law and trademark law, which are being at least partly realized, a uniform European design law might shortly emerge.

On Collection of Documents(10)

Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library


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Patent Law Harmonization Discussion in the United States

__Joseph A.DeGrandi

(trasrslated by Yoichiro YAMAGUCHI)

Die Verwirklichung des Binnenmarktes in der Gemeinschaft und Gewerblicher

__Rechtsschutz sowie Wettbewerbsrectht.

__Kazufumi DOHI

__Der erwartete Abschluss des Binnenmarktes in der Europäischen Gemeinschaft, in der Binnenmarkt am 31. Dezember 1992 verwirklicht werden soll, wird nur ein Meilensteinspunkt für den Gewerblichen Rechtsschutzes und das Wttbewerbsrechts sein, aber kein Wasserscheidenpunkt, mit dem grundlegende Änderungen des bisherigen Rechtssystems, insbesondere des Territorialitäts-grundsatzes, verbunden wären.

Patent System in Developing Countries - NIES,

__ASEAN and India.

__Toshiko OHKITA

__In this paper some problems such as compulsory license, unpatentable invention, duration of the patent protection on patent law are studied comparatively in Asian and Latin Arnerican NIEs, ASEAN Countries and India.

Protection of Industrial Designs

__- Proposed Amendment of Designs Law -

__Kazuko MATSUO

__The present law,with 100 years history is now expected to fulfil a new important mission, a prompt protection of the industrial designs. For this purpose, a modified copyright approach should be additionaly adapted, having a reproduction prevention right upon the application, formality examination and registration of the designs.

The Decisions on the counterfeit "Louis Vuitton" Case concerning the

__Distinction between Trade Mark and Design

__Keiko SOMENO

Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law from

__from 1911 to 1934(5)

Research Office,Industrial Property Training lnstitute

Recent Trend of Intellectual Property in the United Sates


On Collection of Documents(9)

Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library


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ClimbercannotconquerMt.Everestall by himself

__Michio UGA

Violation of Intellectual Property Rights from the Aspect of the Law of Torts


__In Japan there was no particular provision with repect to civil remedies against violating intellectual property rights until 1959. Protection of these rights was left to the general rules of the law of torts in the Civil Code.
__This artic1e analyzes the development of academic theories and court decisions in this area and the significance of new provisions regarding civil liability of violators in the 1959 amended Patent Act and other related acts.

On Analysis of Recent Service Business of Widely Expanded Area


__Recent tendencies of service-businesses of widely expanded areas are analysed and classified according to their types.
__Current service-businesses are changing their character more multi-stratified, individual and of higher quality.
__To keep and secure such characters from illegal competitions necessity of service-mark is pointed out.

On Reverse Engineering

__Hiroshi FURUSAWA

__Legality of reverse engineering of patented inventions, copyrighted works and trade secrets is discussed. Especially the writer asserts that reproduction and adaptation of copyrighted object programs occurred in the course of analysis there of are lawful by reason of fair use, and discusses the legal grounds and requirements of fair use in detail.

On The Correspondance of TAKAHASHI KOREKIYO



__This essay is intended to understand how the Patent Act was enacted in Japan in 1888, through the study of the correspondance of TAKAHASHI KOREKIYO with SCHUYLER DURYEE.

The Decisions of Japanese Supreme Court on the "Troy Bros" Case

__concerning a Construction of Trademark Licence Agreements

__Syoichi KIDANA

Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law

__from 1911 to 1934(4)

Research Office,Industrial Property Training lnstitute

Tripartite Business-Sector Negotiation on Intellectual Property

On Collection of Documents(8)

Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library


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In Expectation of General Intellectual Property Institute


Necessity of Research for Industrial Property System

_- Some suggestions for the joint studies teaming up with the Max

__Planck Institute for Foreign and International Patent,Copyright,

__and Competition Law -

__Hiroyuki OGURA

Use of Work and Working of Patented Inventions

__Hiroshi SAlTO

__This paper shows difference between use of works and working of patented inventions. First, after mentioning that there is no provision of exclusive license in the copyright law, it indicates that an assignment in part of copyright is functionaly very similar to exclusive license. Second, in respect ofemployee's work-creations or inventions, it indicates that contents or functions of contracts or other regulations between employers and employees become different, because the intensions of two institutions are quite different.
__Both the use of works and working of patented inventions look like similar, but substantially different.

Case Law on the Protection of Trade Secrets

__Tatsuki SHIBUYA

__Since 1965 there appeared about 20 decisions, in which courts decided if the proper interest of trade secret holders had been infringed by employees, competitors, partners of contract or others. In this paper these cases are classified into several categories and the case law on each category of them is made clear. By such we will be able to get better and systematic knowledge about the present state of law on the protection of trade secrets in Japan.

Present Problems under Japanese Unfair Competition Law

__- surrounding the lack of "general clause" -

__Shoen ONO

__Present Japanese Unfair Competition Law does not cover some unfair trade practices because of the lack of "general clause". If Japanese Unfair Competition Law had "general clause", it would become the fundamental law for business and trade. Until the enactment of "general clause", it is hoped that a number of tort cases under Art.709 of Japanese Civil Law are accumulated.

Department of Justice Guidelines:International Operations,

__Antitrust Policy

__Tadashi ISHIKAWA

__In November of 1988,U.S.Department of Justice published a new Guidelines, International Operations, Antitrust Policy. This article discusses changes after 1977 when the old Guideline was issued and the background of appearance of the new Guideline,and further refers to the significance and characteristics of the new Guidline which is based upon the rule of reason analysis and have a generous attitude to international operations accompanying efficiency.

On the Decision of Supreme Court on the "Earthbelt" Case

__Masayoshi SUMIDA

Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law

__from 1911 to 1934(3)

Research Office,Industrial Property Training lnstitute

Tripartite Business-Sector Negotiation on Intellectual Property

__- A Case of Trade Secrets -

__Tadayoshi HOMMA

On Collection of Documents(7)

Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library


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On Examination Standard


Necessity of Research for Industrial Property System

- On Patent, Technology and Internationalization -

__Hideichi ARAKI

Arrangement of the Hague concerning the International Deposit

__of Industrial Designs of November 6, 1925, Revised at London

__and at the Hague, Considered from the Japanese Standpoint

__Shigeaki MITSUDA

__The Arrangement of the Hague concerning the International Deposit of Industrial Designs opens the way for simultaneous protection of industrial designs in a number of countries. The contents of the Arrangement, however, are geared chiefly to the needs of countries whose design law is based on the deposit-on-no-examination principle. Prerequisite for Japan's accession to the Arrangement is that Japan adopt this principle to a certains extent and that the Arrangement itself be better adapted to the needs of register-on-examination countries.

Trade-related Aspects of International Protection

__of Intellectual Property Rights

__Shoichi KIDANA

__The trade friction between nations has given rise to the importance of intellectual property in the area of international trade, and the present trend seems to be toward the strengthening of the protection of intellectual property. What is remarkable in respect to this problem is that the discussions are conducted not only by WIPO but also by GATT, who is primarily leading the discussion. However, in determing whether or not GATT can break a new way for solving this hearted international issue, one must study and compare the foundamental principles and structures of WIPO and GATT.

Monopolized Licences Given to the Temporary Nitrogen

__Laboratory by the Wartime Law of Industria1 Property

__Tetsuya KAMEYAMA

__It is well known that the Temporary Nitrogen Laboratory founded in 1918 has developed the ammonia synthesis technology and then has established the base of Japanese modern chemical industry. This report makes clear that monopolized licences given to the laboratory by the wartime law of industrial property have played significant roles for the laboratory's research activities on the development of ammonia synthesis technology.

The Supreme Court judgement upholding the second instance

__finding which found infringement of a utility model right invoking

__the doctrine of equivalents rendered at the Second Small Chamber

__of the Supreme Court on May 29, 1987

__Showa 60(O)No.381, in the case of a registered utility model

__including a cylinder mechanism as its component element

__against an accused apparatus incorporating a crank mechanism.

__Masayoshi SUMIDA

Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law

__from 1911 to 1934(2)

Research Office,Industrial Property Training Institute

Tripartite Private Sector Meeting on Intellectual Property Rights

Koichi ONO,Chairman of Working Group Sub-Committee on Intellectual

Property Rights of Committee on Industrial Technology,KDR

On Collection of Documents(6)

Reference Book Center,Industrial Property Library


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Declaration of New Generation for Japanese Patent Law

- Roll of New Claim system in Harmonization of Japanese Patent Law -

__Yoshinobu SOMENO

Necessity of Research for Industrial Property System

__- Aim at Well-balanced Research on -

____Expert Knowledge and Total Wisdom


Necessity of Research for Industrial Property System

__- For Synthetic Analysis of Economy, Competition and

__Protection of Intellectual Property -

__Michiko ARIGA

Competition-Policy and IntellectuaI Property Rights;

__Looking for the Ballance

__Tosifumi HIENUKI

__To ballance with the anti-monopoly law and the intellectual property rights, it should be recognized that an exclusion of the intellectual prorerty right infringement as an unfair competitive conduct is not itself violation of the anti-monopoly law. The auther says this is what section 23 of the anti-monopoly law essentially intended by words "not apply to such acts recognisable as the exercise of" the intellectual property rights. This section is not immediately applicable to the technology transfer aspects.

The Disclosure of Specification and Patent

__Yoshihiko UMEMOTO

__Since the specification discloses the contents of an invention to the public in order to obtain the patent right-an exclusive-for the invention, its description must satisfy the requirements stipulated by the patent law, and as such complying with the law, it can prevent the disputes over a patent. When an electronic patent application system is just being introduced, today is considered the best time for the specification to return to what it should originally be.

On Documents of TAKAHASH1, Korekiyo, the First Director-General

__of Japanese Patent Office

__Takashi MIKURIYA

__TAKAHASHI, Korekiyo, the First Director-General of Japanese Patent office from 1884 to 1890 and Minister of Finance from 1934 to l936, is the man who followed the eventful life. To fit in his own life, the historical documents of Korekiyo underwent mysterious changes. How was Korekiyo able to compile "the Posthumous manuscript by TAKAHASH1, Korekiyo",which remains in Japanese Patent Office,when he was alive? How did "The Documents of TAKAHASH1, Korekiyo" come into the possession of the Library of Tokyo Metropolitan University?
__And where can we find the unknown documents related to him? This thesis is intended to investigate the above issues.

The 7-Years' Time Allowed for Requesting Examination of Patent

__Applications is Not Extendable

__Shigeaki MITSUDA

Documents on an Early Criminal Case of lnfringement

__of Trade Mark No. 433 in 1885

Research Office,Industrial Property Training Institute

Documents on Legislation Process of Unfair Competition Law

__from 1911 to 1934(1)

Research Office,Industrial property Trainimg institute

Recent International Trends of Protection of Industrial Property

Akihiro KOBAYASH1,Multilateral Negotiation Policy office, International Affairs Division, General Administation Department

On Collection of Documents(5)

Reference Book Center,Industrial Property Library


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Recollection of Studying Patent Law

__Takeo SUZUKI

Necessity of Research for Industrial Property System

__— Aim at Well-balanced Research on —

____Expert Knowledge and Total Wisdom


Intellectual Property and Foreign Trade


__From the viewpoint of international trade, problems concerning intellectual property can be divided into: (1)those among advanced countries, and (2)those between advanced and developing countries.
__The former problems call for rectifying of gaps in intellectual property rights among advanced countries, and the latter call for establishing of appropriate intellectual property rights in those countries.

Die unlautere Ausbeuten fremden Rufs und das Gesetz zur

__Verhutung unlauteren Wettbewerbs

__Kazufumi DOHI

__Der Warenzeichensschutz gemäß japanischem Warenzeichengesetz ist die Gleichartigkeit der Waren und Warenzeichen sowie warenzeichenmäßige Benutzung vorausgesetzt. WZG spielt daher keine Rolle, um kennzeichenmäßige Benutzung fremder Marken für nicht gleichartige Waren oder nicht-kennzechenmäßige Benutzung fremder Marken zu verbieten.
__In diesem Betrag wird eine Methode unter dem Gesetz zur Verhutung unlauteren Wettbewerbs in Japan behandelt,in dem es keine Generalklausel gibt und fast alle Paragraphen die Existenz der Verwechselungen voraussetzen. Die Methode,die neuerdings in den Rechtssprechungen benutzt geworden ist, ist dritte Verwechselung auf die Anlehnungsabsicht aufzubauen,neben den Verwechselungen weder im weiteren Sinne noch im engeren Sinne,mit anderen Worten die Verbindungsabsicht eigene Waren oder Dienstleistungen mit fremdem Ruf oder gutem Qualitätsimage unlauter zu erfassen, damit die unlautere, auch keine Verwechselung herbeiführende,Ausbeuten fremden Rufs vorläufig auch in Japan eingestellt wird.

Problems on Crime and Punishment of Industrial Property

__Right Infringement


__In the article are viewed some characteristic problems of industrial property criminal law as follows. Having taken an expert opinion, an infringer might not, at the time of its commission, be awar of the fact that he was committing an act of infringement. Is this innocence synonymous with the lack of criminal intent?
__What happens if contributory infringement is found to constitute a criminal offence ?
__Patent infringement is usually a crime which can be prosecuted only upon complaint. Where is the true meaning of such complaint?

Proposed Amendments to the U.S.Copyright Law

__for Protection of Industrial Design

__Ryoichi IKEHATA

__The proposed amendments are to add Chapter 10 entitled "Protection of Industrial Design of Useful Articles." to U.S.Code Title 17 - Copyright.
__The Patent Laws have been applied to the field of industrial design protection for nearly a century and a half in the U.S.A.Recently, it is generally recognized that the patent system does not provide the industrial design with adequate protection, because its standard of examination is too strict and high in level to be applied to the industrial design as it is.
__According to the proposed amendements, the industrial design is protected under the Copyright Law, thereby Providing an inexpensive and relatively simple registration process.

Estoppel from the Application for Removal of the Trade Mark Registration

__under Section 51(1)of the Trade Marks Act

__Tatsuki SIBUYA

Documents related to Draft of "Industrial Property Law"(1918)

Research Office,Industrial Property Training Institute

On Collection of Documents(4)

Reference Book Center,Industrial Property Library


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Toward the Establishment of New International

__Rules Protecting Intellectual Properties

_______Shoichi SABA

Necessity of Research for Industrial Property System

__— Some Problems on Research for Industrial Property Laws —

_______Takaaki HATTORI

(Round Table-Talking)

Intellectual Property - Past, Present & Future

Michiko AR1GA, Yoshio KAWAHARA, Bunichiro SANO, Takashi HISAMUNE,Yaeji WATANABE

Change of Japanese Labour Market and employee's invention system

_______Kazuaki TEZUKA

__The Standard of the Compensation for the employee's invention in Japan is not so clearly defined. Nowadays the lifetime employment system is falling into decay so we need a standard of Compensation for an employee's invention as this issue liable to reoccur.

The Transition of the Inventor's Right in the

__Legislation Process of the Japanese Patent Law

_______Yoshinobu SOMENO

__The protection of inventor's right under the Patent Law in Japan has undergone a considerable change during 100 years up to the present. The one of the grounds that brought on this change was "the inventor's principle" to "the applicant's principle".

Arndt Fleuscher,Patentgesetzgebung und chemisch-pharmazeutische

__Industrie im deutschen Kaiserreich(1871 - 1918),

_______Akira OITA

__Die vorliegende Studie(Deutscher Apotheker Verlag,Stuttgart l984)einerseits behandelt eineehend und erstmalig die Geschichte des Patentwesens während der Hochindustrialisierungsphase bis zum Zerfall der Monarchie. Anderseits von verschiedenen Standpunkte aus versucht sie,die Interdependenzen zwischen der Etablierung des im Hindlick aut das Reichspatent gewerblichen.
__Schutzrechtes bzw. seinen späteren Anderungen und der Aufschwung der chemisch-pharmazeutischen Industrie aufzuzeigen. Auf diesem Forschungsgebiet wird sie vie1e Reize und Einflusse auf uns ausüben.

Documents related to Draft of"Industrial Property Law"(1918)

Research Office,Industrial Property Training Institute

Outline of a Report by the Industrial Property Council for Amending Laws

_ Industrial Property Legislation Division,
__Deliberation office,General Administration Department

On Collection of Documents(3)

Reference Book Center,Industrial Property Library


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Necessity to Establish a Research Institute for Industrial Property


Necessity of Research for Industrial Property System

__— Eine Bemerkung zur Patentrechtswissenschaft —

__Saburo KUWATA

On the Concept of"Applied Art"

__Kimimasa ABE

__Today, the term"Applied Art"is superseded by the term"Industrial Design". In this treatise, I have examined some established esthetic theories concerning the definition of these two terms, in order to confirm the grounds for the protection of industrial products.

Groundwork for the Relation Between

Some Problems concerning the Protection of"Works of Applied Art"

__Seido MATSUI

__What is the intention of today's discussions about the protection of "Works of Applied Art"? Here some points of the problem, accompanied by short history in Japan, are described. Further, several suggestions for the drafting new legal system are presented.

Introduction of Service Mark Registration System

__Shoen ONO

__The role of service business enterprises is rapidly increasing in Japan. But, they are often anxious about obtaining protection for their service marks for their use of service marks in new areas. An absence of a registration system of service mark can be a serious handicap to service business enterprises. Japanese law of unfair competition gives a definite protection for the protection of service marks. Both laws of unfair competition and trademark serve to ensure fair competition. Japanese trademark law should provide a registration system for service mark under the same procedure as for trademarks.

"Zum Hintergrund der Gesetzgebung

__vom Gebrauchsmusterrecht in Deutschland"

__Nobuo MONYA

__Dieser Aufsatz will den Standort des Gebrauchsmusterrechts im gewerblichen Rechtsschutz dadurch klaren, das hier dem sozialen Hintergrund dieser Gesetzgebung vom Gebrauchsmusterrecht in Deutschland nachgegangen wird. Das deutsche Gebrauchsmusterrecht diente als Modell für die japanische Gesetzgebung und übt auch heute noch einen großen Einfluß darauf aus.

The Registered Trademark of Itami-Saké

__Manabu YUNOKI

__This historical material is owned by Mr.Konishi(Shirayuki Sake Brewering Company)and was drawn up about 1830. The trade mark of Itami-Saké was registered by the Brewering Trade Association, and was prohibited to pirate of it. It seems to be estimated the registered trademark of Itami-Saké an uncomplete proto-type of the trademark in Japan.

Recent Evidence Rules of Lawsuits for Infringement

__yoshinobu SOMENO

Arrangement international pour la creation d'un bureau central des brevets d'invention(2)

Research Office,Industrial Property Training Institute

Latest Work of WIPO on Industrial Property

International Affairs Division,General Administration Department

On Collection of Documents(2)

Reference Book Center,Industrial Property Library


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On Starting the PATENT STUDIES

__Michio UGA

Congratulatory Message

__Prof.Dr.Friedrich-Karl BEIER

Necessity of Research for Industrial Property System

__— Historical Trend of Industrial Property System in Japan —

__Shoichi INOUE

Industrial Property Law and the Law

__of Unfair Competition

__Shigeaki MITSUDA

__Nonpatented inventions and designs are not necessarily destitute of protection. The law of unfair competition in the broad sense could furnish aid. The present Unfair Competition Prevention Act may not be of much use, but tort law, general principles of law, and article 10bis of Paris Convention, joining hands, should generate possibilities for injunctive relief as well as for damages in matters of trade secrets and slavish imitation. The common mission and innate relations between trademark law and the law of unfair competition ought to be better appreciated in Japan.

Groundwork for the Relation Between

__Patent Law and Copyright Law

__Nobuhiro NAKAYAMA

__Because of technical advancement, many problems that lie on the border between patentright and copyright take place.
__These new problems should be resolved, not by applying the existing laws, but by new legislations which are in conformity with the new matters.

Evaluating Trademark License under

__the Antitrust Law

__Tatsuki SHIBUYA

__The essencial function of the trademark as the indication of product origin and the representation of product quality may not be obstructed by application of the antitrust law to the trademark license.

Die Patentgesetzgebung in Deutschem Reich

__ und Verein Deutscher Ingenieure

__- in Zusammenhang mit der Buchbesprechung Uber sog.

__die "Festschrift"des 125jährigen Bestehens vom VDI -

__Akira OITA

Recent Development of Court Decisions

__in West Germany

__Yoshinobu SOMENO

Arrangement international pour la creation
__d' un bureau central des brevets d' invention(1)

Research Office,Industrial Property Training Institute

Domestic and Foreign Trends of Industrial Property System

Industrial Property Legislation Division, Deliberation Office &
InternationaI Section, General Administraticn Division

On Collection of Documents

Reference Book Center, Industrial Property Library

[Last updated 10 April 2002]


Research Office, Industrial Property Training Institute,

Fax : +81-3-3595-2792